Full name:  Hai ZHAO

Mailing address: Chengdu Institute of Biology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, Republic of China

Telephone: +86 28 82890725

Fax: +86 28 82890733


Degree: Professor

Research Areas

Environment Engineering

Fermentation Engineering

Bioengineering and Biotechnology


Plant physiology

Wastewater treatment by duckweed


1990 M.S., Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

1987 B.S., Microbiology, Sichuan Univeristy


Since 2008, studied on the comprehensive research of new energy biomass duckweed.

Since 2003, studied on fuel ethanol production from sweet potato.

2002-2003, studied on bioconversion process by fungus in Application Technologies Institute of Toulouse, INRA .France.

1996-2002, studied on valuable secondary metabolite bioconversion and successful developed a bioconversiontechnology to manufacture a Chinese medicine for cholesterols lowering.

1990-1995, studied on production ethanol and methane from lignocellulosic biomass by anaerobic fermentation technology.



1. Ling Guo#,Yanling Jin#, Yao Xiao, Li Tan, Xueping Tian, Yanqiang Ding, Kaize He,Anping Du, Jinmeng Li, Zhuolin Yi, Songhu Wang, Yang Fang*, Hai Zhao*. Energy-efficient and environmentally friendly production of starch-rich duckweed biomass using nitrogen-limited cultivation. Journal of Cleaner Production, doi:

2. Guoke Chen, Jun Huang, Yang Fang*, Yonggui Zhao, Xueping Tian, Yanling Jin,Hai Zhao*.Microbial community succession and pollutants removal of a novel carriers enhanced duckweed treatment system for rural wastewater in Dianchi Lake basin.Bioresource Technology,2019,276:8-17

3. Ya-Liang Xu, Li Tan, Ling Guo, Gui-Li Yang, Qi Li, Fan Lai, Kai-Ze He,Yan-ling Jin, Anping Du, Yang Fang*, Hai Zhao*.Increasing starch productivity of Spirodela polyrhiza by precisely control the spectral composition and nutrients status.Industrial Crops & Products,2019,134:284-291.

4. Yang Liu , Xiaoyi Chen , Xinhui Wang, Yang Fang, Yin Zhang ,Mengjun Huang **, Hai Zhao *.The influence of different plant hormones on biomass and starch accumulation of duckweed: A renewable feedstock for bioethanol production.Renewable Energy,2019,138:659-665

5. Qing Zhang, Yan-Ling Jin, Yang Fang, Hai Zhao*. Adaptive evolution and selection of stress-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae for very high gravity bioethanol fermentation, Electronic Journal of Biotechnology,

6. Zhuolin Yi, Yanling Jin, Yao Xiao, Lanchai Chen,  Li Tan, Anping Du, Kaize He,  Dayu Liu, Huibo Luo, Yang Fang*, Hai Zhao*. Unraveling the Contribution of High Temperature Stage to Jiang-Flavor Daqu, a Liquor Starter for Production of Chinese Jiang-Flavor Baijiu, With Special Reference to Metatranscriptomics. Front. Microbiol.2019,10:472 | doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00472

7. Barkat Ali#, Zhuolin Yi#, Yang Fang, Lanchai Chen, Kaize He, Dayu Liu, Huibo Luo, Dong Zhao, Hui He, Yanling Jin*, Hai Zhao*.Characterization of a fungal thermostable endoglucanase from Chinese Nong-flavor daqu by metatranscriptomic method .International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2019, 121:183-190

8. Guoke Chen,Yang Fang,Jun Huang,  Yonggui Zhao,Qi Li, Fan Lai,Yaliang Xu,Xueping Tian,Kaize He,Yanling Jin, Li Tan and Hai Zhao*.Duckweed systems for eutrophic water purification through converting wastewater nutrients to high-starch biomass: comparative evaluation of three different genera (Spirodela polyrhiza, Lemna minor and Landoltia punctata) in monoculture or polyculture,Rsc Advances , 2018 , 8 

9. Gui-Li Yang, Yang Fang, Ya-Liang Xu, Li Tan, Qi Li, Yang Liu, Fan Lai, Yan-Ling Jin, An-Ping Du, Kai-Ze He, Xin-Rong Ma*, Hai Zhao*. Frond transformation system mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens for Lemna minor. Plant Molecular Biology. 2018,98(4-5):319-331. 

10. Ya-Liang Xu, Yang Fang, Qi Li, Gui-Li Yang, Ling Guo, Guo-Ke Chen, Li Tan, Kai-Ze He, Yan-ling Jin*, Hai Zhao*. Turion, an innovative duckweed-based starch production system for economical biofuel manufacture. Industrial Crops and Products, 2018(124): 108-114.

11. Zhuolin Yi, Yang Fang, Kaize He, Dayu Liu, Huibo Luo, Dong Zhao, Hui He, Yanling Jin*, Hai Zhao*.Directly mining a fungal thermostable α-amylase from Chinese Nong-flavor liquor starter.Microbial Cell Factories,2018 , 17 (1) :30

12. Huan-Huan Bai,Ni-Ni Wang,Jiao Mi,Tao Yang,Dong-Mei Fang,Lin-Wei Wu,Hai Zhao*,Guo-YouLi*.Hydroxycinnamoylmalated flavone C-glycosides from Lemna japonica.Fitoterapia,2018,124:211-216

13. Yang Liu, Xiaoyi Chen, Xinhui Wang, Yang Fang, Mengjun Huang, Ling Guo, Yin Zhang, Hai Zhao*.Improving biomass and starch accumulation of bioenergy crop duckweed (Landoltia punctata) by abscisic acid application.Scientific Reports,2018,8:9544 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-27944-7.

14. Yanqiang Ding,Yang Fang,Ling Guo,Zhidan Li, Kaize He,Yun Zhao*, Hai Zhao*.Phylogenic study of Lemnoideae (duckweeds) through complete chloroplast genomes for eight accessions,PeerJ 2017; 5: e4186.; DOI 10.7717/peerj.4186

15. Guoke Chen  Jun Huang  Xueping Tian  Qian Chu  Yonggui Zhao  Hai Zhao*.Effects of influent loads on performance and microbial community dynamics of aerobic granular sludge treating piggery wastewater《Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 2018; 935: 1443–1452

16. Guo, Ling; Ding, Yanqiang; Xu, Yaliang; Li Zhidan; Jin Yanling; He Kaize; Zhao Hai*.Responses of Landoltia punctata to cobalt and nickel: Removal, growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant system and starch metabolism.Aquatic Toxicology, 2017,190: 87-939

17. Yuhong huang†, zhuolin yi†, yanling jin, yonggui zhao, Dong Zhao, hui he, dayu liu, Huibo Luo, Wenxue Zhang, Yang Fang*, and Hai Zhao*.New microbial resource: microbial diversity, function and dynamics in Chinese liquor starter. Scientific reports,2017 Nov 6;7(1):14577. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14968-8. 

18. Huang YH*, Yi ZL*, Jin YL, Huang MJ, He KZ, Liu DY, Luo HB, Zhao D, He H, Fang Y#, Zhao H#. Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Functions and Enzyme Profiles of the Microbial Community in Chinese Nong-Flavor Liquor Starter. Front Microbiol. 2017 Sep 12;8:1747. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01747.

19. Bo Feng, Yang Fang, Zhibin Xu, Chao Xiang, Chunhong Zhou, Fei Jiang,Tao Wang, Hai Zhao*. Development of a New Marker System for Identification of Spirodela polyrhiza and Landoltia punctate. International Journal of Genomics,2017, DOI: 10.1155/2017/5196763

20. Xiang Tao†Yang Fang†Meng-Jun HuangYao XiaoYang LiuXin-Rong Ma*,Hai Zhao*. High flavonoid accompanied with high starch accumulation triggered by nutrient starvation in bioenergy crop duckweed (Landoltia punctata).BMC Genomics, 2017,18:166

21. Yuhong Huang, William G Willats, Lene Lange, Yanling Jin, Yang Fang, Armando A Salmeán, Henriette L Pedersen, Peter Kamp Busk, Hai Zhao*.High-throughput microarray mapping of cell wall polymers in roots and tubers during the viscosity reducing process. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemstry,2016 63(2):178-89 

22. Huang†, MJ; Fang, Y†; Liu, Y; Jin, YL; Sun, JL; Tao, X; Ma, XR; He, KZ; Zhao, H*. Using proteomic analysis to investigate uniconazole-induced phytohormone variation and starch accumulation in duckweed (Landoltia punctata).BMC Biotechnology,2015,15:81-93 

23. Jin Y,Fang Y,Huang M,Sun J,Huang Y,Gao X,Li R,He K,Zhao H*. Combination of RNA sequencing and metabolite data to elucidate improved toxic compound tolerance and butanol fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum from wheat straw hydrolysate by supplying sodium sulfide. Bioresource Technology, 2015,198:77-86 

24. Yang Liu, Yang Fang, Mengjun Huang, Yanling Jin, Jiaolong Sun Xiang Tao, Guohua Zhang, Kaize He,Yun Zhao, Hai Zhao*.Uniconazole-

induced starch accumulation in the bioenergy crop duckweed (Landoltia punctata) I: transcriptome analysis of the effects of uniconazole on chlorophyll and endogenous hormones biosynthesis, Biotechnology for Biofuels, 2015, 8:57-63.

25. Yang Liu, Yang Fang, Mengjun Huang, Yanling Jin, Jiaolong Sun, Xiang Tao, Guohua Zhang, Kaize He, Yun Zhao, Hai Zhao*.Uniconazole-

induced starch accumulation in the bioenergy crop duckweed (Landoltia punctata) II: transcriptome alterations of pathways involved in carbohydrate metabolism and endogenous hormones crosstalk, Biotechnology for Biofuels, 2015, 8:64-70 .

26. Yonggui Zhao, Yang Fang, Yanling Jin, Jun Huang, Xinrong Ma, Kaize He,Zhiming He, Feng Wang, Hai Zhao*.Microbial community and removal of nitrogen via the addition of a carrier in a pilot-scale duckweed-based wastewater treatment system. Bioresource Technology,2015,179:549-558 

27. Zhao Zhao, Hui-juan Shi, Mao-lin Wang , Long Cui , Hai Zhao*Yun Zhao*.  Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on transcriptional regulation of genes encoding key enzymes of starch metabolism in duckweed (Landoltia punctata). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry,2015,86:72-82

28. Lanchai Chen, Yang Fang, Yanling Jin, Yao Xiao, Yonggui Zhao, Hai Zhao*. Biosorption of Cd2+ by untreated dried powder of duckweed Lemna aequinoctialis. Desalination and Water Treatment. 2015,53(1): 183-194

29. Y. Zhao, Y. Fang, Y. Jin, J. Huang, S. Bao, T. Fu, Z. He, F. Wang, M. Wang & H. Zhao*. Pilot-scale comparison of four duckweed strains from different genera for potential application in nutrient recovery from wastewater and valuable biomass production. Plant Biology. 2015, 1:82-90..

30. Lasse Bech, Florian-Alexander Herbst, Morten Nedergaard Grell, Zhao Hai,Lene Lange. On-Site Enzyme Production by Trichoderma asperellum for the Degradation of Duckweed,Fungal Genom Biol 2015, 5:2

31. Yonggui Zhao, Yang Fang, Yanling Jin, Jun Huang, Shu Bao, Zhiming He, Feng Wang, Hai Zhao*. Effects of operation parameters on nutrient removal from wastewater and high-protein biomass production in a duckweed-based (Lemma aequinoctialis) pilot-scale system. Water Science and Technology, 2014,70(7):1195-1204

32. Zhao Zhao, Huijuan Shi, Yang Liu, Hai Zhao, Haifeng Su, Maolin Wang, Yun Zhao*.The influence of duckweed species diversity on biomass productivity and nutrient removal efficiency in swine wastewater. Bioresource Technology 2014, 167:383–389.

33. Mengjun Huang, Yang Fang, Yao Xiao, Jiaolong Sun, Yanling Jin, Xiang Tao, Xinrong Ma, Kaize He, Hai Zhao*. Proteomic analysis to investigate the high starch accumulation of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) under nutrient starvation. Industrial Crops and Products, 2014,59: 299–308. 

34. Yonggui Zhao, Yang Fang, Yanling Jin, Jun Huang, Shu Bao, Tian Fu, Zhiming He,Feng Wang, Hai Zhao*. Potential of duckweed in the conversion of wastewater nutrients to valuable biomass: A pilot-scale comparison with water hyacinth.Bioresource Technology,2014,1638291

35. Haifeng Su, Yun Zhao, Juan Jiang, Qiuli Lu, Qing Li, Yao Luo, Hai Zhao*,Maolin Wang*. Use of Duckweed (Landoltia punctata) as a Fermentation Substrate for the Production of Higher Alcohols as Biofuels. Energy&Fuels , 2014, 28 (5), 3206–3216

36. Nini Wang, Guobo Xu, Yang Fang, Tao Yang, Hai Zhao *, Guoyou Li *.New Flavanol and Cycloartane Glucosides from Landoltia punctate. Molecules, 2014, 19, 6623-6634

37. Yuhong Huang, Yanling Jin, Weiliang Shen,Yang Fang, Guohua Zhang, Hai Zhao*. The use of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes from a newly isolated Penicillium ochrochloron Biourge for viscosity reduction in ethanol production with fresh sweet potato tubers as feedstock .Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry, 2014, 61(4):480–491 

38. Haifeng Su,Yun Zhao,Hai Zhao*,Maolin Wang*,Qing Li,Juan Jiang,Qiu lin Lu.Identification and assessment of the effects of yeast decarboxylases expressed in Escherichia coli for producing higher alcohols.Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2014, 117(1):126-138

39. Yuhong Huang, Yanling Jin, Yang Fang, Yuhao Li, Hai Zhao*. Simultaneous utilization of non-starch polysaccharides and starch and viscosity reduction for bioethanol fermentation from fresh Canna edulis Ker. tubers. Bioresource Technology,2013,128:560–564. (SCI,5.039一区)

40. Xiang Tao, Yang Fang, Yao Xiao, Yanling Jin, Xinrong Ma, Yun Zhao, Kaize He, Hai Zhao*,Haiyan Wang*. Comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the high starch accumulation of duckweed ( Landoltia punctata) under nutrient starvation. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 2013, 6:72.

41. Yao Xiao, Yang Fang, Yanling Jin, Guohua Zhang, Hai Zhao*. Culturing duckweed in the field for starch accumulation. Industrial crops and products. Industrial Crops and Products, 2013,48183– 190.

42. Yuhong Huang, Yanling Jin, Yang Fang, Yuhao Li, Guohua Zhang, Qian Chen, Hai Zhao*. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of non-starch polysaccharides and starch from fresh tuber of Canna edulis ker at a high solid content for ethanol production. Biomass & bioenergy, 2013,52: 8-14.

43. Hai Zhao, Klaus Appenroth, Louis Landesman, Armando A. Salmea´n, Eric Lam. Duckweed rising at Chengdu: summary of the 1st International Conference on Duckweed Application and Research. Plant Molecular Biology,2012,78:627–632

44. Qian Chen, Yanling Jin, Guohua Zhang,Yang Fang,Yao Xiao,Hai Zhao*. Improving Production of Bioethanol from Duckweed (Landoltia punctata) by Pectinase Pretreatment.Energies,2012, 5, 3019-3032

45. Huiling Xue , Yao Xiao , Yanling Jin, Xinbo Li, Yang Fang, Hai Zhao*.Genetic diversity and geographic differentiation analysis of duckweed using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Molecular Biology Reports, 2012,39(1):547–554

46. Yanling Jin, Yang Fang, Guohua Zhang, Lingling Zhou, Hai Zhao*. Comparison of ethanol production performance in ten varieties of sweet potato at different growth stages. Acta Oecologica,2012,44:33-37

47. Liang Zhang, Hai Zhao*, Mingzhe Gan, Yanling Jin , Xiaofeng Gao , Qian Chen,Jiafa Guan, Zhongyan Wang. Application of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)from viscosity reducing of raw sweet potato for bioethanol production at laboratory, pilot and industrial scales.Bioresource Technology, 2011, 102(6):4573–4579

48. Xinhui Wang, Yuhong Huang, Yang Fang, Yanling Jin, Guohua Zhang, Xiao feng Gao,Hai Zhao*.Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological property of Zymomonas mobilis 232B. African Journal of Biotechnology,2011,11(36):8880-8888

49. Liang Zhang, Qian Chen,Yanling Jin, Huilin Xue, Jiafa Guan, Zhongyan Wang, Hai Zhao*. Energy-saving direct ethanol production from viscosity reduction mash of sweet potato at very high gravity. Fuel Processing Technology,2010 , 1845-1850



1. A method to improve the yield of duckweed starch by optimizing spectral composition. Cn 108323427b

2. A method to improve the total starch yield of duckweed by promoting the formation of dormancy body. Cn 107548982 b)

3. Drum type potato starch extractor and water-saving starch extractor. Zl201410500105.3

4. A method for preservation of duckweed living materials. Zl201410324407. X

5. A rapid extraction method of anthocyanin from purple sweet potato. Zl201410317273.9

6. Methods to improve the yield of starches and crude protein of duckweed and the removal rate of nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage at the same time. ZL 201410198497.2

7. A method for preparing visbreaking enzyme from Mucor twiggy and its application. ZL 201310492417. X

8. A common Fusarium, a method of preparing visbreaking enzyme and its application. ZL 201310451257.4

9. A rapid method to increase the starch content of duckweed. Zl201310603781.9

10. Duckweed culture wave eliminator and its application in duckweed culture. ZL 201310704120.5

11. Drum type potato starch extractor and water-saving starch extractor. Zl201420557600.3

12. A strain with high yield and viscosity reducing enzyme system and its application. Zl201210234738.5

13. A method for the fermentation of acetone, ethanol and butanol from straw. Zl201210259521x

14. A method for the fermentation of acetone, ethanol and butanol from straw. Zl2012102600152

15. A method of producing fuel ethanol by duckweed fermentation. Zl201110169414.3

16. A method for the efficient production of fuel butanol from duckweed. Zl201110122135.1

17. A method for producing butanol by fermentation with cellulose as raw material. Zl201010213076.4

18. A quick method to reduce the viscosity of potato. Zl201110165042.7

19. A method for the determination of total sugar content in potato. Zl201110213410.0

20. A method for preservation of industrial sweet potato. Invention patent : ZL200610021316.4

21. A method for very high gravity ethanol fermentation. Invention patent :200610022209.3.

22.  A  method for rapid ethanol fermentation. Invention patent :200710049077.8.

23.A method for rapid ethanol fermentation by zymomonas mobilis. Invention patent :201010237753.6

Research Interests

1 High-efficiency ethanol conversion technology from sweet potato;

2 Research on aquatic energy plant of new type, duckweed;

3 R&D of production technology for biofuelbutanol;

4 Dietary fiber production technique by ethanol fermentation residue of sweet potato;

5 Bio-liquid fuel production and environment protection using duckweed as feed stock;

6. Wastewater treatment by duckweed.

7. Microbial diversity, function and dynamics in Chinese liquor starter.


(1)Omics and genetic transformation research of duckweed   2015-07-06
(2)Advantages, Progress and Opportunities of Duckweed in Bio-liquid fuel Production and Environment Protection  2011-10-07
(3)Biorefinery of new energy plant :duckweed  2011-05-26



肖长清  硕士研究生  071005-微生物学  

苗慧  硕士研究生  071001-植物学  

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